DNA is a double helical polymer composed of deoxyribos sugar, phosphate, and the four nucleic bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine.(2) The sugar/phosphate iterations form the two strands along both sides, and joining the opposed sides like runs on a ladder are two paired base molecules. Each sugar/phosphate side member having one of the bases bonded to the sugar group toward the side of the polymer and bonded toward the middle to its paired base counterpart, (adenine A to thymine T, cytosine C to guanine G: A/T or T/A and C/G or G/C.) The overall acidic properties of the polymer are attributable to the phosphate groups along its two sides. The fundamental element in this spiraling helix is the nucleotide which is one sugar/phosphate group with its unpaired base attached. A 16 inch strand is nearly 500 million times longer than its 2 nanometer width and may have more than 200 million nucleotide pairs. Human DNA in 46 chromosomes has about 3,165 million base pairs. When this ladder is split down the middle separating the paired bases, two strands are expressed that constitute a 4X code at each nucleotide: A, T, C, or G, every three nucleotides of which representing a coded word of 64X possibilities. With some duplication the 20 bio-amino acids are represented with their own words along with some control words that encode operations essential to the replication, transcription, and translation devices that utilize this code for highly specific work. These 64 words have been experimentally demonstrated, with their individual amino acids and operations identified.(3) But whether this is the sole extent of the sequences, or rather the only level of meaning is a question. Transfer RNA, (tRNA), having from 60 to 95 nucleotides which also must be transcribed off sequential DNA locations, has at least 20 different multi word expressions; what else? What about the many ribonucleic protein structures, (RNP), e.g. Vaults and Ribosomes? Where are their structural RNA parts encoded? Lastly there are many external factors and controls that operate on DNA sites suitable to their influence: some are known; how many are not? Moreover, as DNA twists like licorice two groves are expressed where the active sites on the paired bases are presented in the major and minor groves. How many cell processes and cellular machines might utilize this structured information? The packaging of DNA to fit into and be useful within the nucleus of cells is another wonder. First the twisting of the strand reduces its absolute length, but coiling twice around 8 histone proteins at precise points all along its length forms an 11 nanometer string of pearls, called a nucleosome string. This string is again coiled and, by the 9th histone protein, bound in solenoids of twisting groups of 6 to 8 nucleosome forming the 30 nanometer fibers called chromatin.(4) The inter working of histone and DNA increases the complexity significantly in all other operations DNA is involved in. All operative factors network with these packaging states and coordinate their functions. Under meiosis and mitosis the DNA is coiled and folded more, but these above are normal DNA states during interphase where most cellular life work is done. In any living organism, all of its complexity from beginning to end is encoded in its DNA. And all that information is useless without the rest of that cell or cells. It has been said, that if the information in a teaspoon full of DNA were written into paperback books, the stack would reach from the earth to the moon and back 400 times. That is a lot of complexity in a very little package, but without a ribosome it is gibberish, useless.
DNA Complexity (deoxyribonucleic acid) Newsletter
Written by xDICEx | Last Modified on: 2013-09-27 01:36:03 | Hits: 39